Dr Lidija McknightBSc, MSc, PhD

Research Associate

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My research focuses on the use of non-invasive radiographic techniques to study mummified animal remains from ancient Egypt. Mummies are generally wrapped in linen bandages and it is often impossible to see what the bundles contain simply by examining them visually. The use of radiographic techniques such as X-ray and CT scanning, enables us to see what the bundles contain without disturbing the integrity of the bundle and causing irreparable damage. As techniques improve, the quality of images we can acquire also improves and we are able to gather more and more information about the animals and the way they lived, died, and were treated at the hands of the embalmers.

I am particularly interested in how 3D visualisation and printing technologies can be applied to the study of archaeological artefacts. Engaging the public with academic research and improving our knowledge of museum collections remain key factors behind my research.


My interest in human and animal mummification began whilst studying for a BSc in Archaeology at the University of York where I completed my dissertation on the animal collection from Bolton Museum and Art Gallery.  This involved hand-developing the images in the departmental broom cupboard during a particularly warm British summer! In 2001, I gained an MSc in Biomedical and Forensic Egyptology at the KNH Centre, the University of Manchester, concentrating on the Manchester Museum collection, using the sophisticated clinical imaging suite at the Manchester Royal Infirmary.   

I was awarded my PhD in 2008 with a thesis investigating four major museum collections using clinical imaging techniques. My thesis was published as a BAR Report in 2010.

In June 2010, I began work as a Research Associate on the Ancient Egyptian Animal Bio Bank Project which aims to increase our knowledge and awareness of mummified animals in museum collections. To date, the Bio Bank holds records for 960 animal mummies held in 59 museum collections (54 in the UK, 2 in the US and 2 in Europe), including radiograhic analysis of 400 animal mummies which have been radiographed by the Manchester team. 

In September 2010, the project was awarded funding from the Leverhulme Research Project Award  (RPG-2013-143) under the title 'An Investigation of Ancient Animal Mummies using Diagnostic Radiographic Imaging'. Work continues on the application of clinical and industrial imaging techniques to the study of ancient mummified animal material and also the use of experiential techniques to replicate ancient mummification methods. One distinct research theme is how accurately we can identifiy animals to species level using radiography alone from wrapped animal mummies. A range of experimental mummies have been produced blind (using unknown species) to test this theory.

I am particularly keen to improve the relationship between academia and cultural institutions, helping to foster positive relationships through which museum collections can be investigated, interpreted and displayed.

External positions

Honorary Curator of Archaeo-Zoology, Manchester Museum

18 Sep 2014 → …

Vice Chair of Governing Body (Parent), New Mills Nursery School

1 May 20121 Jul 2018

Areas of expertise

Biology, Medicine and Health (BMH) Domains

Education / academic qualifications

  • 2009 - Doctor of Philosophy, Egyptology, The University of Manchester (2004 - 2008)
  • 2001 - Master in Science, Biomedical and Forensic Studies in Egyptology, The University of Manchester (2000 - 2001)
  • 2000 - Bachelor of Science, Archaeology, LocalizedString(id=76155869, text={en_GB=University of York}) (1997 - 2000)

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