Although the female menopause has been extensively characterized as a well-defined symptomatic state of oestrogen deficiency, which responds relatively well to oestrogen replacement therapy, the symptomatic state of androgen deficiency in men is poorly defined and uncertainty exists whether it responds to testosterone replacement. It has been proposed that hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT)-axis function (responsible for the production of androgens) and regulation could be viewed as a âbarometerâ of health status in older men and that potential alterations in HPT-axis function and regulation reflect subclinical and clinical deficits in function and health, which may result in an aged phenotype of human health and disease in older men. The HPT-axis constitutes a well-defined, tractable, clinically-relevant, biological system, which may permit insight into the mechanisms underlying the expression of ageing-related phenotypes of human health and disease. By using a different lens â such as the genetic background; the compensatory responses within the HPT-axis; the syndromes of androgen deficiency; the ethnic background of an individual or the life course trajectory of function and health from conception into older age â to magnify potential dysregulation in the HPT-axis will it be possible to visualize and understand the phenotypic expression of human male ageing as a gradient of functional and health outcomes. This will allow for a better understanding of the physiological mechanics underlying symptomatic expression of dysregulation in the HPT-axis.