This thesis will probe selected Arabic commentary material on the Hippocratic Aphorisms. The aim is, first, to shed light on the development of Arabic medical commentary; second, to draw attention to issues of continuity and change in medical ideas and debates; third, to shed light on wider debates about women and medicine in the medieval world. Due to limitations on space, the main focus is on the second point. The sample of Arabic commentary material investigated here relates to Aph. 5. 31, Aph. 5. 35 and Aph. 5. 48. The material is situated within the wider context of the Islamic scientific commentary genre. The Arabic material is taken from the preliminary online edition now available due to the culmination of the Project on the Hippocratic Aphorisms (2012-2017) led by Peter Pormann at the University of Manchester.