AbstractThe University of ManchesterJames BlackFor the degree of Doctor of PhilosophySolvent & additive effects on the appearance of polymorphs of p-aminobenzoic acidSubmitted July 2016P-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is a polymorphic compound with two known polymorphs - alpha with a needle morphology and β with a rhombic morphology. It is an enantiotropic compound with a transition temperature at 13.8oC, where alpha is more thermodynamically stable above transition temperature and β is more thermodynamically stable below. At the beginning of this project, crash-cooling crystallisation experiments were conducted to determine the effect of solvent, temperature and supersaturation on the nucleating polymorphs of PABA. Three solvents were tested (water, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol) over a range of supersaturations and temperatures. The results suggested that polymorph appearance of PABA was heavily influenced by kinetics, as opposed to thermodynamics of the system, disagreeing with Ostwald's rule of stages. The project then focussed on the ability of tailor-made additives to select the crystallising polymorph of PABA from supersaturated solutions of PABA in isopropyl alcohol. Crash-cooling crystallisation experiments were performed using two additives: 4-amino-3-nitrobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3-methoxybenzoic acid. Results showed that alpha PABA crystallised below a critical concentration of either additive, and above that critical concentration, β PABA would crystallise.To determine whether the additives were affecting the nucleation and/or growth kinetics of alpha PABA and β PABA, a series of nucleation and growth experiments were conducted using a Crystal16 multiple stirred reactor and a crystal growth cell respectively. The results showed that both additives greatly reduced the attachment frequency of growth units to alpha PABA nuclei, and inhibited the growth rate of alpha PABA seed crystals. Nucleation data could not be obtained for β PABA, but in terms of crystal growth, both additives did not affect growth rate of β PABA to a noticeable degree. Gravimetric and HPLC experiments were also employed to measure the solubility effects of both additives on PABA in isopropyl alcohol. Results showed that both additives did not appear to affect PABA's solubility to a noticeable degree.