Optimising The Lamination Properties Of Textile Composites

UoM administered thesis: Phd

  • Authors:
  • Ali Mahmood


Woven glass composites have been used for many years in commercial applications due to their light weight, competitive price and good engineering properties. Absorption of energy by laminated composite material results in damage in various forms, the most common of which is delamination. Inter-laminar fracture causes the layers of composite to separate, resulting in a reduction in stiffness and strength of the composite structure, matrix cracking and in some cases fibre breakage takes place. The aim of this project was to improve the inter-laminar bond strength between woven glass fabric and resin. Air jet texturing was selected to provide a small amount of bulk to the glass yarn. The purpose was to provide more surface contact between the fibres and resin and also to increase the adhesion between the neighbouring layers. These were expected to enhance the resistance to delamination in the woven glass composites.Glass yarns were textured by a Stähle air jet texturing machine. Core-and-effect yarn was produced instead of a simple air textured yarn. Hand loom and vacuum bagging techniques were used for making the fabric and composite panels from both textured and non-textured yarns. Density and fibre volume content were established for physical characterisation. Breaking strength (tenacity) of the yarns and tensile, flexure, inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) and fracture toughness (mode 1) properties of the composites were determined. Projection microscopy and SEM imaging techniques were used to assess the fractured surfaces of the composite specimens. The yarn tenacity and the tensile properties of the composites were significantly reduced after the texturing process, whereas flexure properties were unchanged. However, significant improvement was observed in the ILSS and fracture toughness of the composites after the texturing process. It was also observed that the composites made from the fabrics with textured yarns in only the weft direction are the most advantageous as they maintained the tensile and flexure properties but have significantly higher inter-laminar shear strength.


Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
Award date1 Aug 2012