The study of Neuropterida from the Lower Cretaceous Purbeck Limestone Group and Wealden Supergroup of southern England has shown that 13 families, 24 genera and 33 species are present. The majority of the taxa described are new to science with the exception of six genera and four species, which are redescribed. The Purbeck fauna consists of the families Kailligrammatidae, Psychopsidae, Osmylidae, Prohemerobiidae, Chrysopidae, ?Hemerobiidae, Berothidae, Nymphidae, Mesoraphidiidae and one incertae sedis family. The Wealden contains Kalligrammatidae, Psychopsidae, Osmylidae, Ithonidae, Mesoraphidiidae and two incertae sedis families. The psychopsoid families are the most dominant neuropterid in the Purbeck and Wealden neuropterid fauna. The discovery of the families Chrysopidae, ?Hemerobiidae, Osmylidae, Ithonidae, Berothidae represent the first record in the Mesozoic of Britain. The ithonid also represents the oldest fossil record of that family. Megaloptera have not been found in these deposits. The neuropterids in both deposits would have lived in a distant wooded area based on modern analogues. On death they would have undergone disarticulation, decomposition/sorting and then deposition of wings only in the depositional basin. No body parts have been found associated with any neuropterid from these deposits. The climate change through the English Lower Cretaceous may have affected the neuropterid fauna in size (Raphidioptera) and family turnover (Neuroptera). Biogeographical links have been hinted at with Asia and South America with the occurrence of some of the same genera.A preliminary key to the fossil raphidiopterans has been presented aiding identification to family and generic level. This is the first time such a key has been presented on fossil Raphidioptera. A cladistic study was undertaken (21 characters and 28 taxa) on the genera of fossil Raphidioptera with the inclusion of extant genera. Fifteen synapomorphies were found, but, relationships are largely unresolved, with few well-supported clades. Baissopteridae and Mesoraphidiidae were found to be paraphyletic. Baissopteridae is basal to all raphidiopterans. Both the key and cladistic study highlighted the need for a major taxonomic revision of fossil raphidiopterans.