The 21st Century has seen a rise in incidence of complex diseases such as cancer and in the quest to develop essential new therapeutic options, the study of drug-cell interactions can yield powerful information. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is an aggressive cancer that causes life-threatening deficits of functional blood cells in humans for which current treatment options are highly toxic and often poorly tolerated. A combination of two existing drugs, bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate in a drug redeployment situation has shown promise in vitro and in vivo and further investigations are crucial to elucidate the mode of action of this treatment.This project investigated the mechanistic action of BaP at a cellular level. Orthogonal spectroscopic and mass spectrometric platforms were employed to probe the biochemical composition of two AML cell lines, HL60 and K562 in the presence and absence of this combined drug treatment. Analysis was performed on single living cells, dehydrated cells, fixed cells and cell extracts to give a large and detailed data set.A consideration of the main spectral differences obtained by Synchrotron-FTIR and ATR-FTIR in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis revealed a significant change to the cellular lipid composition with drug treatment; furthermore, this response was not caused by cell apoptosis. In particular, the ratio of CH2:CH3 was observed to increase with BaP treatment and this was determined to be a significant change in both cell lines (p <0.05). An overall increase in lipid unsaturation suggests that BaP targets cellular lipid biosynthesis. Raman microspectroscopy added a further dimension to the spectroscopic study by providing spatial information of lipid distribution which suggested that BaP-induced saturation change is uniform across a single cell.UHPLC-MS was employed for global metabolomics analysis of AML cell extracts and revealed a number of biochemical pathways that were indicated as targets of BaP therapy in both cell lines. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined statistically significant metabolites for which putative identifications were made. Pyrimidine metabolism was the most significant pathway identified for changes consistent in both HL60 and K562 cell lines.The complementarity of ToF-SIMS and UHPLC-MS provided large coverage of the lipidome of AML cells through untargeted and targeted approaches. For data derived by both techniques, a general increase in polyunsaturated species for BaP treated cell extracts was observed which correlated well with findings from spectroscopic investigations.Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach to cell analysis can afford a powerful insight into understanding drug mode of action at a cellular level and novel information regarding BaP mechanistic action in AML cell lines was revealed. This analytical approach could be extended to the future study of drug-cell interactions for other oncological systems.