Following chemo-mechanical cleaning of the root canal system, the provision of a fluid-tight seal is one of the main requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Gutta percha with a sealer has been considered as the gold standard root canal filling for many years. However, it does not have all the properties of an ideal root canal filling. A resin-based root filling, Resilon, has been introduced which has the advantage of bonding to the root canal dentine forming a "monoblock". Different properties of Resilon have been investigated, but some properties using different obturation techniques and in retreatment need further investigation.The aim of this project was to investigate selected properties of Resilon in primary endodontic treatment (quality of obturation using either cold lateral condensation or thermal compaction, and push-out bond strength following the use of different intracanal medicaments) and secondary endodontic treatment (removability using a combination of hand and rotary instrumentation, fracture resistance and leakage resistance following different removal techniques).Using micro-CT, the volume of voids in root canals obturated with Resilon in comparison with gutta percha using either cold lateral condensation or thermal compaction was investigated. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two materials regardless of the obturation technique.The use of Vitapex and iodoform was found to significantly reduce the bond strength of Resilon to dentine in comparison with calcium hydroxide and its aqueous combination with iodoform (Calcipast1).The effectiveness of the combined use of hand K-files and ProTaper retreatment files in removal of Resilon using either cold lateral condensation or thermal compaction was compared to that of gutta percha. Micro-CT assessment showed that Resilon resulted in significantly more remaining material than gutta percha when thermal compaction was used.Fracture resistance of retreated roots filled with Resilon was found to be not significantly different from those filled with gutta percha irrespective to the removal technique (either hand K-files or ProTaper retreatment files). Using the same retreatment techniques, dye leakage resistance of root canals re-filled with Resilon was compared with that of primarily treated root canals. The results showed that there was no significant difference in leakage resistance between re-treated and primarily treated root canals.Obturation with Resilon was shown to have no significant advantage over gutta percha in terms of quality of obturation and fracture resistance in retreated roots. More investigation of the clinical performance of Resilon is required before it can be considered as a replacement for gutta percha.