Foreign object damage (FOD) refers to the damage that generally takes place in aero engine fans and compressor blades, due to the ingestion of hard particles/debris during aeroplane take-off, taxiing, or landing. Such damage can reduce the fatigue life expectancy of the turbine engine components by 50%. Residual stresses and small microcracks induced by the high speed FOD impacts are two root causes that result in premature failure of these components. One way to mitigate the FOD related fatigue failure is to induce deep compressive residual stress into the surface. Among the available techniques that can induce such compressive residual stress, laser shock peening (LSP) has been found to be beneficial in improving the fatigue strength. In this study aerofoil-shaped Ti-6Al-4V leading edge specimens were laser shock peened. Subsequently, FOD was introduced onto the leading edge specimen through ballistic impacts of a cube edge at angles of 0° and 45° to the leading edge. The effect of foreign object damage (FOD) on the pre-existing compressive residual stress field associated with the laser shock peening (LSP), and its change upon solely low cycle fatigue (LCF) as well as combined low and high cycle fatigue cycling has been studied. The residual stress distribution and their redistribution upon fatigue cycling were mapped around the FOD notch, using synchrotron X-ray radiation and the contour method. The results suggest that under both impact angles, the FOD event superimposed a significant additional residual stress on top of the pre-existing stress associated with the LSP process. It has been observed that the FOD notch created by 45° impact was asymmetric in shape, and had differential notch depth between the entry and exit side. However, FOD damage that is created at 0° impact appeared as a sharp V notch. A higher amount of residual stresses were produced under 0° impact condition than at 45°. It has been found even though the FOD induced residual stresses relax, residual stresses due to LSP treatment remain highly stable even in the worst condition where a 7 mm long crack was grown from a 45° notch. The plastic zone sizes ahead of a crack tip was estimated for both 0° and 45° FOD impact, and the fatigue crack growth rates are predicted utilizing the measured residual stress distribution.