In this thesis, four experimental studies are reported. Two concern the surface structure of commercially relevant dental implant materials. Characterisation of four treated substrates supplied by Straumann AG was carried out. These include substrates equivalent to the commercially available SLA, SLActive and Roxolid implants. The materials vary in substrate alloy, commercially pure (grade 2) Ti and a TiZr alloy, and surface preparation treatments. All substrates are sandblasted and acid etched however post-etching one set are stored in air whilst the others are stored in saline. Within the work both substrate composition and surface treatment is shown to impact on the respective surface oxide thickness, crystallinity and morphology.The other two experimental studies concern calcium phosphate deposition from solution onto substrates. The first investigation is the deposition of calcium phosphate from a simulated body fluid onto implant-like substrates, shown to be structurally equivalent to the SLA and SLActive implant surfaces. The effect of surface modifications on calcium phosphate deposition is investigated; over the period investigated calcium phosphate did not deposit onto the SLA substrate, whilst deposition occurred within 3 days on the SLActive substrate. The role of Mg2+ ions in the simulated body fluid is also investigated, with increased [Mg2+] resulting in a longer induction period and modified crystallinity of the hydroxyapatite film formed.The final study is a model study of the initial calcium phosphate deposition on to substrates. TiO2 rutile (110) and Al2O3 corundum (0001) were prepared to be atomically flat and then exposed to a simple calcium phosphate solution. Changes in surface structure and surface chemistry over the first three hours of exposure were investigated. Deposition occurred rapidly on both substrates with a complete surface coverage after 3 hours.