This thesis has been prepared in a paper based format. The thesis focused on emotion recognition and regulation in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Paper 1 has been prepared for submission to the Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, Paper 2 has been prepared for future submitted to the Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities.Paper 1 is a systematic review of studies investigating the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion in individuals with Down syndrome. Thirteen studies were included in the review. Their design, methods and findings were analysed. Findings from the systematic review were presented and discussed and recommendations for future research were made. Paper 2 is a within-group, exploratory correlational study investigating whether individuals with ID have specific difficulties with processes involved in emotional regulation. The first key finding of this study was that the ability to emotionally regulate was associated with the ability to generate new ideas for non-conventional objects. The second key finding was that the ability to generate new ideas for conventional objects, the ability to identify negatively valenced emotions and the ability to conceptualise dreams as private correlated with the ability to mentalise. The results provided preliminary empirical evidence into ER processes in individuals with ID. Paper 2 includes a number of important theoretical and clinical implications as well as the limitations and suggestions for future research.Paper 3 presents a critical evaluation and reflection of design and process of the development of papers 1 and 2. This paper also includes clinical implications of the research findings as well as suggestions for future research.