Background:Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is a pacemaker-based therapy for patients with heart failure and dyssynchrony manifest as prolonged QRS duration. Approximately 30% fail to respond either symptomatically or echocardiographically. The role of several echocardiographic parameters to select patients and improve response rate has been studied. The utility of these parameters remains unclear. In particular recent advances in echocardiography with speckle tracking technology may provide more accurate assessment of dyssynchrony. This study aims to explore the role of echocardiography in prediction of CRT response and investigate mechanisms involved in response.Methods:Patients undergoing CRT according to national guidance were recruited. Baseline assessment included clinical examination, quality of life questionnaire, six minute walk test, electrocardiogram and detailed echocardiography. Follow-up assessment was performed six months after CRT. Response was defined as greater than or equal to15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume. Baseline parameters of echocardiographic dyssynchrony were compared between responders and non-responders. Individual baseline and follow-up echocardiograms also were examined to assess mechanism of response.Results:51 patients were recruited and 40 patients completed six months follow-up. Echocardiographic response rate was 67.5%. Baseline parameters of dyssynchrony were not significantly different between responders and non-responders, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis suggested echocardiographic parameters have no role in prediction of response beyond QRS duration. Study of individual echocardiograms demonstrated several mechanisms of CRT response the relative importance of which vary between patients.Conclusion:Single echocardiographic dyssynchrony parameters appear to have no role in the prediction of CRT response. However, several mechanisms of response to CRT are identified, each of which may be identified echocardiographically, and echocardiography therefore continues to have an important role in pre-assessment of patients undergoing CRT.