Ontologies are a key factor of Information management as they provide a common representation to any domain. Historically, finance domain has suffered from a lack of efficiency in managing vast amounts of financial data, a lack of communication and knowledge sharing between analysts. Particularly, with the growth of fraud in financial markets, cases are challenging, complex, and involve a huge volume of information. Gathering facts and evidence is often complex. Thus, the impetus for building a financial fraud ontology arises from the continuous improvement and development of financial market surveillance systems with high analytical capabilities to capture frauds which is essential to guarantee and preserve an efficient market.This thesis proposes an ontology-based approach for financial market surveillance systems. The proposed ontology acts as a semantic representation of mining concepts from unstructured resources and other internet sources (corpus). The ontology contains a comprehensive concept system that can act as a semantically rich knowledge base for a market monitoring system. This could help fraud analysts to understand financial fraud practices, assist open investigation by managing relevant facts gathered for case investigations, providing early detection techniques of fraudulent activities, developing prevention practices, and sharing manipulation patterns from prosecuted cases with investigators and relevant users. The usefulness of the ontology will be evaluated through three case studies, which not only help to explain how manipulation in markets works, but will also demonstrate how the ontology can be used as a framework for the extraction process and capturing information related to financial fraud, to improve the performance of surveillance systems in fraud monitoring. Given that most manipulation cases occur in the unregulated markets, this thesis uses a sample of fraud cases from the unregulated markets. On the empirical side, the thesis presents examples of novel applications of text-mining tools and data-processing components, developing off-line surveillance systems that are fully working prototypes which could train the ontology in the most recent manipulation techniques.