Polycrystalline materials are widely used for industrial applications. These materials are highly anisotropic with different responses under different loading conditions. This dissertation uses a crystal plasticity scheme in the finite element framework (CPFEM) to study deformation mechanisms in alumina, aluminium and stainless steel - all polycrystalline. Four research cases in this dissertation have been presented in the form of manuscripts for publication. When possible, modelling predictions have been compared against various experimental techniques such as Diffraction Contrast Tomography (DCT), Neutron Diffraction (ND) and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). After an introduction (Chapter 1) and a literature review (Chapter 2) on plastic deformation and modelling techniques, the methodology and results are presented and discussed (Chapters 3 and 4). Measurements of elastic strains for individual grain families (ND) and local rotations (DCT and EBSD) are compared against corresponding predictions by the model following different loading modes. Each study reveals different degrees of agreement between predictions and measurements. The individual conclusions to each study are presented in Chapter 4. Some overall conclusions and suggestions for further work are presented in Chapter 5.