James Banks is Professor of Economics at the University of Manchester and Deputy Research Director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS). He received his BSc and MSc, both in Economics, from Bristol and the London School of Economics respectively, joining the IFS as a research economist on completing his MSc in 1990. At the IFS he subsequently completed a PhD in Economics at University College London, directed the research into consumption and savings (1992-1999) and served as Deputy Director of the Institute from 1997 to 2002. In 2002 he changed roles, becoming Deputy Research Director of IFS and joining the faculty at UCL where he was Professor of Economics. He moved to Manchester in 2010 and retains a half-time appointment at the IFS as Senior Research Fellow and Co-Director of the ESRC Centre for the Microeconomic Analysis of Public Policy.