Whole body physiologically based modelling of β-blockers in the rat: events in tissues and plasma following an i.v. bolus dose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • External authors:
  • S.Y.A., Cheung
  • T. Rodgers
  • I. Gueorguieva
  • G.L. Dickinson
  • Susan Murby
  • C Brown
  • Brent Collins
  • Malcolm Rowland


Background and Purpose

Whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been increasingly applied in drug development to describe kinetic events of therapeutic agents in animals and humans. The advantage of such modelling is the ability to incorporate vast amounts of physiological information, such as organ blood flow and volume, to ensure that the model is as close to reality as possible.

Experimental Approach

Previous PBPK model development of enantiomers of a series of seven racemic β-blockers, namely, acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol and propranolol, together with S-timolol in rat was based on tissue and blood concentration data at steady state. Compounds were administered in several cassettes with the composition mix and blood and tissue sampling times determined using a D-optimal design.

Key Results

Closed-loop PBPK models were developed initially based on the application of open loop forcing function models to individual tissues and compounds. For the majority of compounds and tissues, distribution kinetics was adequately characterized by perfusion rate-limited models. For some compounds in the testes and gut, a permeability rate-limited distribution model was required to best fit the data. Parameter estimates of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient through fitting of individual enantiomers and of racemic pair were generally in agreement and also concur with those from previous steady-state experiments.

Conclusions and Implications

PBPK modelling is a very powerful tool to aid drug discovery and development of therapeutic agents in animals and humans. However, careful consideration of the assumptions made during the modelling exercise is essential.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages17
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Early online date20 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2017

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