The vertebrate kidney is comprised of functional units known as nephrons. Defects in nephron development or activity are a common feature of kidney disease. Current medical treatments are unable to ameliorate the dire consequences of nephron deficit or injury. Although there have been tremendous advancements in our understanding of nephron ontogeny and the response to damage, many significant knowledge gaps still remain. The zebrafish embryo kidney, or pronephros, is an ideal model for many renal development and regeneration studies because it is comprised of nephrons that share conserved features with the nephron units that comprise the mammalian metanephric kidney. In this chapter, we provide an overview about the benefits of using the zebrafish pronephros to study the mechanisms underlying nephrogenesis as well as epithelial repair and regeneration. We subsequently detail methods for the spatiotemporal assessment of gene and protein expression in zebrafish embryos that can be used to extend the understanding of nephron development and disease, and thereby create new opportunities to identify therapeutic strategies for regenerative medicine.