Variable-order fractional master equation and clustering of particles: non-uniform lysosome distribution

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we formulate the space-dependent variable-order fractional master equation to model clustering of particles, organelles, inside living cells. We find its solution in the long time limit describing non-uniform distribution due to a space dependent fractional exponent. In the continuous space limit, the solution of this fractional master equation is found to be exactly the same as the space-dependent variable-order fractional diffusion equation. In addition, we show that the clustering of lysosomes, an essential organelle for healthy functioning of mammalian cells, exhibit space-dependent fractional exponents. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the non-uniform distribution of lysosomes in living cells is accurately described by the asymptotic solution of the space-dependent variable-order fractional master equation. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the fractional master equation validate our analytical solution.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20200317
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2205
Early online date19 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 6 Sep 2021