PURPOSE. Opticin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that the authors discovered in the vitreous humor of the eye. It is synthesized by the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and secreted into the vitreous cavity and, unusually for an extracellular matrix molecule, high-level synthesis is maintained into adult life. Here the authors investigated the hypothesis that opticin influences vascular development in the posterior segment of the eye and pathologic angiogenesis into the normally avascular, mature (secondary) vitreous. METHODS. Opticin was localized in murine eyes by immunohistochemistry. An opticin knockout mouse was established and vascular development was compared between knockout and wild-type mice. Wild-type and opticin null mice were compared in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, a model of pathologic angiogenesis, and this model was also used to assess the effects of intravitreal injection of recombinant opticin into eyes of wild-type mice. RESULTS. Opticin colocalizes with the collagen type II rich fibrillar network of the vitreous, the inner limiting lamina, the lens capsule, the trabecular meshwork, and the iris. Analyses of the hyaloid and retinal vasculature showed that opticin has no effect on hyaloid vascular regression or developmental retinal vascularization. However, using the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, the authors demonstrated that opticin knockout mice produce significantly more preretinal neovascularization than wild-type mice, and the intravitreal delivery of excess opticin inhibited the formation of neovessels in wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS. A lack of opticin does not influence vascular development, but opticin is antiangiogenic and inhibits preretinal neovascularization. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.