The Offset Droplet: A new methodology for studying the solid/water interface using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The routine study of the solid-water interface by XPS is potentially revolutionary as this development opens up whole new areas of study for photoelectron spectroscopy. To date this has been realised by only a few groups worldwide and current techniques have significant restrictions on the type of samples which can be studied. Here we present a novel and uniquely flexible approach to the problem. By introducing a thin capillary into the NAP-XPS, a small droplet can be injected onto the sample surface, offset from the analysis area by several mm. By careful control of the droplet size a water layer of controllable thickness can be established in the analysis area - continuous with the bulk droplet. We present results from the solid-water interface on a vacuum prepared TiO2(110) single crystal and demonstrate that the solid/liquid interface is addressable.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Physics: Condensed Matter
Early online date11 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017