The International Dimension of Electrical Energy Derived Emissions for Machine Tools

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


In manufacturing processes, significant energy use can be linked to carbon emissions and rising manufacturing costs. In machining, the basic electrical energy consumed by machine tools dominates the total energy footprint compared to the energy required for the actual material removal process. Therefore, the contribution of the machine tools to energy consumption and emissions derived from consumed energy (Scope 2 emissions) has to be modelled and minimised. In this study, the direct energy required in turning operations and its impact on carbon emission were evaluated considering locating the machine tools in different geographical zones that have varied carbon intensity factors for electrical energy generation. This research is vital in understanding the challenges and opportunities for reducing scope emissions given the international mobility of capital and the possibilities for geographically distributed or optimised manufacture that could be enabled by cloud manufacturing and industry 4.0.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-701
Number of pages6
JournalProcedia CIRP
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2021
Event28th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, LCE 2021 - Jaipur, India
Event duration: 10 Mar 202112 Mar 2021