Purpose of the Review: This review summarises the characteristics of the lung mycobiome in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and fungal lung diseases. We have also reviewed the limitations of the current methods in mycobiome studies. Recent Findings: Available studies in the impacts of the mycobiome in chronic and fungal lung diseases are scarce and comparison of the available studies is hindered by heterogeneity in the sample sizes, methods and patient selection. Summary: The impact of the diversity and composition of the lung mycobiome in chronic and fungal lung diseases is poorly understood. Most studies involve detection of fungi in respiratory samples by culture. However, such methods lack sensitivity and the emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies is an important advance. However, differences in the sequencing methodologies limit study comparisons. Well-designed methodological approaches and large cohort studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the lung mycobiome in respiratory diseases.