The current systematic literature review sought to determine the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in educational settings. Student-focused school-based MI (SBMI) studies were assessed using qualitative and quantitative assessment frameworks and data were reported using PRISMA guidelines. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, although just eight were classified as ‘best evidence’ and included in the final synthesis. Seven of the included studies yielded positive findings and one study was neutral. Although there are methodological weaknesses in existing literature on student-focused SBMI, there is emerging evidence of its effectiveness for improving student outcomes in relation to academic achievement, behaviour and school-based motivation. Clear pointers for future research emerge from the review.