The circadian clock network in mammals is responsible for the temporal coordination of numerous physiological processes that are necessary for homeostasis. Peripheral tissues demonstrate circadian rhythmicity and dysfunction of core clock components has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases that are characterized by abnormal extracellular matrix, such as fibrosis (too much disorganized matrix) and tissue breakdown (too little matrix). Kidney disease is characterized by proteinuria, which along with the rate of filtration, displays robust circadian oscillation. Clinical observation and mouse studies suggest the presence of 24-hourly kidney clocks responsible for circadian oscillation in kidney function. Recent experimental evidence has also revealed that cell-matrix interactions and the biomechanical properties of extracellular matrix have key roles in regulating peripheral circadian clocks and this mechanism appears to be cell- and tissue-type specific. Thus, establishing a temporally resolved kidney matrisome may provide a useful tool for studying the two-way interactions between the extracellular matrix and the intracellular time-keeping mechanisms in this critical niche tissue. This review summarizes the latest genetic and biochemical evidence linking kidney physiology and disease to the circadian system with a particular focus on the extracellular matrix. We also review the experimental approaches and methodologies required to dissect the roles of circadian pathways in specific tissues and outline the translational aspects of circadian biology, including how circadian medicine could be used for the treatment of kidney disease.