Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation causes neutrophilic airway inflammation. We used LPS produced to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards to characterise the dose response. A total of 15 healthy non-smoking subjects inhaled 5-, 15- and 50-µg LPS. Whole blood cell counts and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at baseline and up to 24 h post challenge. Sputum was induced at baseline and 6 h post challenge for cell counts and quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in supernatants. LPS inhalation was well tolerated. Blood neutrophil counts increased at 6 h post LPS with all doses. Serum CRP significantly increased with 15- and 50-µg LPS. All LPS doses significantly increased sputum neutrophil percentage (P < 0.001). IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in sputum supernatant following challenge with 50-µg LPS, there was no change in MPO or IL-8. The 50-µg LPS was well tolerated and produced a robust inflammatory response. This study supports the use of 50-µg GMP-grade LPS as a suitable challenge agent in clinical trials.