Recently, there has been great interest in errorless learning as a new intervention technique. This may be because there are data from both basic neuroscience and clinical application that suggest it is superior to more traditional trial and error methods. In the contemporary literature the most prominent investigations of errorless learning are those designed for rehabilitation of memory impairments. These studies include numerous demonstrations of effective amelioration of word finding difficulties using errorless intervention. The aphasic literature contains no examples of purely errorless learning methods, however, some studies have successfully treated anomia using error reducing techniques. This suggests that errorless learning could be advantageous for treating aphasic disorders, in particular anomia. To explore this idea, we discuss previous research and review two current theories of errorless learning. We provide our own framework for thinking about errorless and errorful learning. In addition, a review of the anomia treatment literature (from 1985 to the present) is presented and conclusions drawn on the methods of treating the word finding difficulties of patients with aphasia.