The acquisition of questions with long distance dependencies

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

A number of researchers have claimed that questions and other constructionswith long distance dependencies (LDDs) are acquired relatively early, by age 4 or even earlier, in spite of their complexity. Analysis of LDD questions in the input available to children suggests that they are extremely stereotypical, raising the possibility that children learn lexically specific templates such as WH do you think S-GAP? rather than general rules of the kind postulated in traditional linguistic accounts of this construction. We describe three elicited imitation experiments with children aged from 4;6 to 6;9 and adult controls. Participants were asked to repeat prototypical questions (i.e., questions which match the hypothesised template), unprototypical questions (which depart from it in several respects) and declarative counterparts of both types of interrogative sentences. Thechildren performed significantly better on the prototypical variants of both constructions, even when both variants contained exactly the same lexical material, while adults showed prototypicality e¤ects for LDD questions only. These results suggest that a general declarative complementation construction emerges quite late in development (after age 6), and that even adults rely on lexically specific templates for LDD questions.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCognitive Linguistics: The Quantitative Turn
EditorsL Janda
Place of PublicationBerlin
PublisherDe Gruyter Mouton
Pages197-224
Publication statusPublished - 2013