Synergistic effect of graphene oxide and zoledronic acid for osteoporosis and cancer treatment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • Authors:
  • Gökçen Boran
  • Sepideh Tavakoli
  • Ingo Dierking
  • Ali Reza Kamali
  • Duygu Ege


Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a third generation bisphosphonate which can be used as a drug for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastasis. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) is conjugated with ZOL, and the nanostructured material is evaluated in terms viability, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, the associated morphological changes of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells, as well as the effect of the drugs on mineralization of BM-MSCs are investigated using a variety of characterization techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as alamar blue, acridine orange, and alizarin red assays. Nanostructured ZOL-GO with an optimum performance is synthesized using ZOL and GO suspensions with the concentration of 50 µM and 2.91 ng/ml, respectively. ZOL-GO nanostructures can facilitate the mineralization of BM-MSC cells, demonstrated by the formation of clusters around the cells. The results obtained confirm the performance of ZOL-GO nanostructures as promising drug complexes for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastasis.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Early online date8 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020