study in nephroureterectomy specimens defining the role of 3-D upper urinary tract visualization using optical coherence tomography and endoluminal ultrasound

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • External authors:
  • Mieke T J Bus
  • Paul Cernohorsky
  • Daniel M de Bruin
  • Sybren L Meijer
  • Geert J Streekstra
  • Dirk J Faber
  • Guido M Kamphuis
  • Patricia J Zondervan
  • Maria P Laguna Pes
  • Maik J Grundeken
  • Martin J Brandt
  • Theo M de Reijke
  • Jean J M C H de la Rosette
  • Ton G van Leeuwen


Minimal invasive endoscopic treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is advocated in patients with low-risk disease and limited tumor volume. Diagnostic ureterorenoscopy combined with biopsy is the diagnostic standard. This study aims to evaluate two alternative diagnostic techniques for UUT-UC: optical coherence tomography (OCT) and endoluminal ultrasound (ELUS). Following nephroureterectomy, OCT, ELUS, and computed tomography (CT) were performed of the complete nephroureterectomy specimen. Visualization software (AMIRA®) was used for reconstruction and coregistration of CT, OCT, and ELUS. Finally, CT was used to obtain exact probe localization. Coregistered OCT and ELUS datasets were compared with histology. Coregistration with three-dimensional CT makes exact data matching possible in this ex-vivo setting to compare histology with OCT and ELUS. In OCT images of normal-appearing renal pelvis and ureter, urothelium, lamina propria, and muscularis were visible. With ELUS, all anatomical layers of the ureter could be distinguished, besides the urothelial layer. ELUS identified suspect lesions, although exact staging and differentiation between noninvasive and invasive lesions were not possible. OCT provides high-resolution imaging of normal ureter and ureter lesions. ELUS, however, is of limited value as it cannot differentiate between noninvasive and invasive tumors.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)017001
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Issue number1
Early online date12 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - 2018