Spatiotemporal Analysis by Deep Learning of Gait Signatures from Floor Sensors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The recognition of gait pattern variation is of high importance to various industrial and commercial applications, including security, sport, virtual reality, gaming, robotics, medical rehabilitation, mental illness diagnosis, space exploration, and others. The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of gait variability in more detail, by identifying gait intervals responsible for gait pattern variations in individuals, as well as between individuals, using cognitive demanding tasks. This work uses deep learning methods for sensor fusion of 116 plastic optical fiber (POF) distributed sensors for gait recognition. The floor sensor system captures spatiotemporal samples due to varying ground reaction force (GRF) in multiples of up to 4 uninterrupted steps on a continuous 2x1 m area. We demonstrate classifications of gait signatures, achieving up to 100% F1-score with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), in the context of gait recognition of 21 subjects, with imposters and clients. Classifications under cognitive load, induced by 4 different dual tasks, manifested lower F1-scores. Layer-Wise Relevance Propagation (LRP) methods are employed to decompose a trained neural network prediction to relevant standard events in the gait cycle, by generating a “heat map” over the input used for classification. This allows valuable insight into which parts of the gait spatiotemporal signal have the heaviest influence on the gait classification and consequently, which gait events, such as heel strike or toe-off, are mostly affected by cognitive load.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16904 - 16914
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Volume21
Issue number15
Early online date7 May 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2021