Over the past decade there has been an ongoing debate about how to reconcile the different priorities of defending basic human rights and providing life-saving humanitarian aid during complex emergencies. This debate has focused on how the delivery of aid can be (or is always) used to political ends. At the extreme it may effectively become a weapon of war as most vividly seen in ongoing conflict in southern Sudan. Many humanitarian aid agencies are increasingly aware of that they must look beyond simplistic responses of offering aid and consider the wider impact of that aid on the underlying problems. Human rights agencies are also coming to a greater recognition that humanitarian aid plays an important role in enabling the full range of human rights to be upheld, for example ensuring access to people under threat (for a useful summary of the current debate see Minear and Weiss 2000).