Multi-material additive manufacturing provides a new route for fabricating components with tailored physical properties. Laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF), also known as selective laser melting, is a powder bed-based additive manufacturing technology. This technology affords the advantage of manufacturing metallic and non-metallic materials with high geometrical resolution. An emerging field relevant to the foregoing is multi-material L-PBF. This paper reviews the latest progress in this field including multiple material powder deposition mechanisms, molten pool behaviour, process characteristics of printing metal–metal, metal–ceramic, and metal–polymer multiple material components, and potential applications. Finally, scientific and technological challenges are presented.