Most radiogenomics studies investigate how genetic variation can help to explain the differences in early and late radiotherapy toxicity between individuals. The field of radiogenomics in photon beam therapy has grown rapidly in recent years, carving out a unique translational discipline, which has progressed from candidate gene studies to larger scale genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses and now prospective validation studies. Genotyping is increasingly sophisticated and affordable, and whole-genome sequencing may soon become readily available as a diagnostic tool in the clinic. The ultimate aim of radiogenomics research is to tailor treatment to the individual with a test based on a combination of treatment, clinical and genetic factors. This personalisation would allow the greatest tumour control while minimising acute and long-term toxicity. Here we discuss the evolution of the field of radiogenomics with reference to the most recent developments and challenges.