Prediction of human drug clearance by multiple metabolic pathways: Integration of hepatic and intestinal microsomal and cytosolic data

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The current study assesses hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation, sulfation, and cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism of raloxifene, quercetin, salbutamol, and troglitazone using different in vitro systems. The fraction metabolized by conjugation and P450 metabolism was estimated in liver and intestine, and the importance of multiple metabolic pathways on accuracy of clearance prediction was assessed. In vitro intrinsic sulfation clearance (CLint, SULT) was determined in human intestinal and hepatic cytosol and compared with hepatic and intestinal microsomal glucuronidation (CL int, UGT) and P450 clearance (CL int, CYP) expressed per gram of tissue. Hepatic and intestinal cytosolic scaling factors of 80.7 mg/g liver and 18 mg/g intestine were estimated from published data. Scaled CLint, SULT ranged between 0.7 and 11.4 ml . min -1 . g -1 liver and 0.1 and 3.3 ml . min-1 . g -1 intestine (salbutamol and quercetin were the extremes). Salbutamol was the only compound with a high extent of sulfation (51 and 28% of total CLint for liver and intestine, respectively) and also significant renal clearance (26-57% of observed plasma clearance). In contrast, the clearance of quercetin was largely accounted for by glucuronidation. Drugs metabolized by multiple pathways (raloxifene and troglitazone) demonstrated improved prediction of intravenous clearance using data from all hepatic pathways (44-86% of observed clearance) compared with predictions based only on the primary pathway (22-36%). The assumption of no intestinal first pass resulted in underprediction of oral clearance for raloxifene, troglitazone, and quercetin (3-22% of observed, respectively). Accounting for the intestinal contribution to oral clearance via estimated intestinal availability improved prediction accuracy for raloxifene and troglitazone (within 2.5-fold of observed). Current findings emphasize the importance of both hepatic and intestinal conjugation for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of metabolic clearance. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)864-873
Number of pages9
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2011