Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to support qualification of pyridoxic acid as endogenous biomarker of OAT1/3 renal transporters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • Amais Ahmad
  • Annett Kunze
  • Frank Jacobs
  • Jan Snoeys


Renal clearance of many drugs is mediated by renal organic anion transporters OAT1/3 and inhibition of these transporters may lead to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Pyridoxic acid (PDA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were indicated as potential biomarkers of OAT1/3. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for PDA and HVA to support biomarker qualification. Simultaneous fitting of biomarker plasma and urine data in the presence and absence of potent OAT1/3 inhibitor (probenecid, 500 mg every 6 h) was performed. The impact of study design (multiple vs. single dose of OAT1/3 inhibitor) and ability to detect interactions in the presence of weak/moderate OAT1/3 inhibitors was investigated, together with corresponding power calculations. The population models developed successfully described biomarker baseline and PDA/HVA OAT1/3-mediated interaction data. No prominent effect of circadian rhythm on PDA and HVA individual baseline levels was evident. Renal elimination contributed greater than 80% to total clearance of both endogenous biomarkers investigated. Estimated probenecid unbound in vivo OAT inhibitory constant was up to 6.4-fold lower than in vitro values obtained with PDA as a probe. The PDA model was successfully verified against independent literature reported datasets. No significant difference in power of DDI detection was found between multiple and single dose study design when using the same total daily dose of 2000 mg probenecid. Model-based simulations and power calculations confirmed sensitivity and robustness of plasma PDA data to identify weak, moderate, and strong OAT1/3 inhibitors in an adequately powered clinical study to support optimal design of prospective clinical OAT1/3 interaction studies.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-477
JournalCPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology
Issue number5
Early online date11 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021