Out-of-equilibrium criticalities in graphene superlattices

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • Alexey Berdyugin
  • Na Xin
  • Haoyang Gao
  • Zhiyu Dong
  • Shubhadeep Bhattacharjee
  • Leonid Ponomarenko
  • Matthew Holwill
  • Denis Bandurin
  • Minsoo Kim
  • Yang Cao
  • Mark Greenaway
  • Konstantin Novoselov
  • K Watanabe
  • T Taniguchi
  • Leonid Levitov
  • Roshan Krishna Kumar
  • Andre Geim


In thermodynamic equilibrium, current in metallic systems is carried by electronic states near the Fermi energy, whereas the filled bands underneath contribute little to conduction. Here, we describe a very different regime in which carrier distribution in graphene and its superlattices is shifted so far from equilibrium that the filled bands start playing an essential role, leading to a critical-current behavior. The criticalities develop upon the velocity of electron flow reaching the Fermi velocity. Key signatures of the out-of-equilibrium state are current-voltage characteristics that resemble those of superconductors, sharp peaks in differential resistance, sign reversal of the Hall effect, and a marked anomaly caused by the Schwinger-like production of hot electron-hole plasma. The observed behavior is expected to be common to all graphene-based superlattices.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)430-433
Number of pages4
Issue number6579
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2022