Oral Manifestations of Autoimmune Neutropenia: A Case Report

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Abstract

Autoimmune neutropenia is a self-limiting condition characterized by the presence of granulocyte-specific autoantibodies. This case report describes a 2-year-old female who presented to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry with a history of oral ulceration, complicated by high temperature, gingival hypertrophy and gingival hemorrhage. These symptoms had precipitated an admission to a district general hospital and diagnosis of viral tonsillitis. The severity of the presentation to the Pediatric Dental Department prompted a review of recent discharge blood investigations, which revealed a neutrophil count of 0.07×109/L(1.0-8.5 ×109/L) indicating severe neutropenia. Urgent referral to Pediatric Hematology resulted in same-day admission and a diagnosis of autoimmune neutropenia was established. The patient was managed with chlorhexidine mouthwash, prophylactic antimicrobial and antifungal medication and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Neutropenia may present with features exclusive to the oral cavity. Recognition of atypical presentations such as oral ulceration with associated systemic illness may assist in early diagnosis.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Article number doi: 10.17796/1053-4625-43
Pages (from-to)46-50
JournalJournal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019