Off to Plan or Out to Lunch? Relationships between Design Characteristics and Outcomes of Strategy Workshops

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Strategy workshops, also known as away days, strategy retreats, and strategic ‘off-sites’, have become widespread in organizations. However, there is a shortage of theory and evidence concerning the outcomes of these events and the factors that contribute to their effectiveness. Adopting a design science approach, in this article we propose and test a multidimensional model that differentiates the effects of strategy workshops in terms of organizational, interpersonal and cognitive outcomes. Analysing survey data on over 650 workshops, we demonstrate that varying combinations of four basic design characteristics – goal clarity, routinization, stakeholder involvement, and cognitive effort – predict differentially these three distinct types of outcomes. Calling into question conventional wisdom on the design of workshops, we discuss the implications of our findings for integrating further the strategy process, strategy-as-practice, and strategic cognition literatures, to enrich understanding of the factors that shape the nature and influence of contemporary strategic planning activities more generally.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-528
Number of pages22
JournalBritish Journal of Management
Early online date9 Sep 2013
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2015

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