Background: Obesity poses significant challenges to healthcare globally, particularly through its bi-directional relationship with co-morbid metabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension. There is also emerging evidence of an association between obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is less well characterized. Methods: A literature search of electronic libraries was conducted to identify and present a narrative review of the interplay between obesity and CKD. Findings: Obesity may predispose to CKD directly as it is linked to the histopathological finding of obesity-related glomerulopathy and indirectly through its widely recognized complications such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. The biochemical and endocrine products of adipose tissue contribute to pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and proteinuria. The prevention and management of obesity may prove critical in counteracting both the development and advancement of CKD. Moreover, measures of abdominal adiposity such as waist circumference, are generally associated with worse morbidity and mortality in individuals receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Conclusion: Obesity is a risk factor for the onset and progression of CKD and should be recognized as a potential target for a preventative public health approach to reduce CKD rates within the general population. Future research should focus on the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with CKD and obesity due to their multi-faceted actions on major outcomes.