Smoking has been associated, in epidemiological studies, with an increased risk of cervical neoplasia. This may be in part due to the presence of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cervical mucous of smokers, which may result in carcinogenic DNA damage. We have thus examined whether cervical DNA contains alkylation damage arising from exposure to methylating agents (N7-methyldeoxyguanosine, N7-MedG). DNA was extracted from cervical cytology samples and N7-MedG levels were measured using an immunoslotblot assay. Ninety percentage of the DNA samples were alkylated and N7-MedG levels (mean, 95% CI) in ever-smokers (1.27, 0.90-1.81 μmol/mol dG) were significantly higher than those in nonsmokers (0.42, 0.20-0.91 μmol/mol dG: p = 0.005). N7-MedG adduct levels were significantly correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day and pack years of cigarette smoking in current smokers. There was no association with N7-MedG levels and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia status, age, parity or contraception use. Our study suggests that cervical DNA contains alkylation damage that can arise from exposure to cigarette smoke. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.