Multi-wavelength Raman Spectroscopy of Ultra-narrow Nanoribbons Made by Solution-mediated Bottom-up Approach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • External authors:
  • Daniele Rizzo
  • Deborah Prezzi
  • Alice Ruini
  • Vaiva Nagyte
  • Akimitsu Narita
  • Uliana Beser
  • Fugui Xu
  • Yiyong Mai
  • Xinliang Feng
  • Klaus Müllen
  • Elisa Molinari


Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), where detailed multi-wavelength Raman measurements are integrated by accurate ab initio simulations. Our study covers several ultra-narrow GNRs, obtained by means of solution-based bottom-up synthetic approach, allowing to rationalize the effect of edge morphology, position and type of functional groups as well as the length on the GNR Raman spectrum. We show that the low-energy region, especially in presence of bulky functional groups is populated by several modes, and a single radial breathing-like mode cannot be identified. In the Raman optical region, we find that, except for the fully-brominated case, all GNRs functionalized at the edges with different side groups show a characteristic dispersion of the D peak (8{22 cm-1/eV). This has been attributed to the internal degrees of freedom of these functional groups, which act as dispersion-activating defects. The G peak shows small to negligible dispersion in most of the cases, with larger values only in presence of poor control of the edges functionalization, exceeding the values reported for highly defected graphene.
In conclusion, we have shown that the characteristic dispersion of the G and D peaks offer further insight on the GNR structure and functionalization, by making Raman spectroscopy an important tool for the characterization of GNRs.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review B
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 3 Jun 2019