Monopole and dipole estimation for multi-frequency sky maps by linear regression

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • External authors:
  • I. K. Wehus
  • U. Fuskeland
  • H. K. Eriksen
  • A. J. Banday
  • T. Ghosh
  • K. M. Górski
  • C. R. Lawrence
  • J. P. Leahy
  • D. Maino
  • P. Reich
  • W. Reich


We describe a simple but efficient method for deriving a consistent set of monopole and dipole corrections for multi-frequency sky map data sets, allowing robust parametric component separation with the same data set. The computational core of this method is linear regression between pairs of frequency maps, often called T-T plots. Individual contributions from monopole and dipole terms are determined by performing the regression locally in patches on the sky, while the degeneracy between different frequencies is lifted whenever the dominant foreground component exhibits a significant spatial spectral index variation. Based on this method, we present two different, but each internally consistent, sets of monopole and dipole coefficients for the nine-year WMAP, Planck 2013, SFD 100 μm, Haslam 408 MHz and Reich & Reich 1420 MHz maps. The two sets have been derived with different analysis assumptions and data selection, and provide an estimate of residual systematic uncertainties. In general, our values are in good agreement with previously published results. Among the most notable results are a relative dipole between the WMAP and Planck experiments of 10-15μK (depending on frequency), an estimate of the 408 MHz map monopole of 8.9 ± 1.3 K, and a non-zero dipole in the 1420 MHz map of 0.15 ± 0.03 K pointing towards Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (308°,-36°) ± 14°. These values represent the sum of any instrumental and data processing offsets, as well as any Galactic or extra-Galactic component that is spectrally uniform over the full sky.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA131
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017