Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of numerous concomitant diseases. Mental health disorders, including both as anxiety and depression, are highly prevalent, but under-recognized and often untreated comorbidities in patients with COPD. The interrelation between COPD and mental health remains poorly understood, but it has been suggested that depression may be caused by nicotine addiction or by a low-grade systemic inflammation, and anxiety by the sense of breathlessness and "air-hunger" that these patients experience. It has been suggested that adequate COPD treatment might improve the mood of these patients, but there are significant shortcomings in this field of research. This review of the interaction of COPD and the mental health status is aimed at both the information of clinicians in everyday practice, and at future research direction.