Mechanical and thermal properties of PMMA resin composites for interim fixed prostheses reinforced with calcium β-pyrophosphate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • External authors:
  • Iouliana Chrysafi
  • Eleana Kontonasaki
  • Dimitra Patsiaoura
  • Lambrini Papadopoulou
  • George Vourlias
  • Evangelia Vouvoudi
  • Dimitrios Bikiaris


Interim restorations are essential in fixed prosthodontics as they provide temporary protection of teeth before the insertion of the permanent restoration. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used in the fabrication of interim-fixed restorations as it is a biocompatible material with a lot of convenient properties. However, it exhibits low impact and tensile strength and therefore it is necessary to be reinforced. Calcium β-pyrophosphate (β-CPP) is considered a promising reinforcing material for dental applications, especially for enamel regeneration due to its stability at low pH and its low wear rate. The aim of this study was to manufacture PMMA/β-CPP composites suitable for fixed-interim restorations and to study their mechanical and thermal properties. In order to enhance β-CPP dispersion into PMMA matrix, ball-milling was performed for 1 or 6 h. Three-point bending test was performed to study flexural strength, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to reveal the elastic and viscous moduli along with Tg, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD) to investigate the structure of the materials and SEM for the morphological evaluation of both composite powders and polymerized specimens. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed to study their thermal properties. A statistically significant increase in flexural strength was found in the 0.5, 0.75 and 1% composite groups after 6 h ball-milling, relative to the control, with the 6 h ball milling mixed specimens, presenting the highest flexural strength values. The brittle fracture type was common to all groups. An obvious improvement of the mechanical properties and a slight improvement in the thermal stability of the composite materials values were also observed as β-CPP content was increased, while Tg values were statistically not-affected.

Bibliographical metadata

Original languageEnglish
Article number104094
JournalJournal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sep 2020