Infiltration usually plays a significant role in construction failures and transfer of contaminants. Therefore, it is very important to monitor underground water migration. In this study, a soil infiltration experiment was carried out using an indoor model test. The water infiltration characteristics were recorded and analyzed based on the response of the geoelectric field, including the primary field potential, self-potential, excitation current and apparent resistivity. The phreatic water surface and the infiltration velocity were determined. The inversion results were compared with direct observations. The results showed that the changes in the geoelectric field parameters explain the principles of groundwater flow. The infiltration velocity and the phreatic surface can be determined based on the primary field potential response and the excitation current. When the phreatic surface reached the location of the electrodes, the primary field potential and self-potential decreased rapidly whereas the excitation current increased rapidly. The height of the phreatic surface and the infiltration time exhibited a linear relationship for both the observation data and the calculations of the excitation current. The apparent resistivity described the infiltration status in the soil and tracked the phreatic surface accurately.