Antennas are an important component in ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems.
Although there has been much research reported on the design of individual antennas, there is less research reported on the design of the geometry of bi-static antennas. This paper considers the effects of key parameters in the setup of a GPR head consisting of a bi-static bow-tie pair to show the effect of these parameters on the GPR performance. The parameters investigated are the antenna separation, antenna height above the soil, and antenna input impedance. The investigation of the parameters was performed by simulation and measurements. It was found when the bi-static antennas were separated by 7 cm to 9 cm and were operated close to the soil (2 cm to 4 cm), the reflected signal from a near-surface object is relatively unaffected by height variation and object depth. An antenna input impedance of 250 Ω was chosen to feed the antennas to reduce the late-time ringing. Using these results, a new GPR system was designed and then evaluated at a test site near Benkovac, Crotia.