Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer but its impact on endometrial cancer survival outcomes is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing T2DM impacts survival outcomes in endometrial cancer.
Patients and methods
Women diagnosed with endometrial cancer were recruited to a single centre prospective cohort study. Relevant sociodemographic and clinico-pathological data were recorded at baseline. T2DM status was based on clinical and biochemical assessment, verified by general practitioner records and analysed in relation to overall, cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival using Kaplan-Meier estimation and multivariable Cox-regression.
In total, 533 women with median age and BMI of 66 years (Interquartile range (IQR), 56, 73) and 32kg/m2 (IQR 26, 39) respectively, were included in the analysis. The majority had low-grade (67.3%), early-stage (85.1% stage I/II), endometrial cancer of endometrioid histological phenotype (74.7 %). A total of 107 (20.1%) had pre-existing T2DM. Women with T2DM had a two-fold increase in overall mortality (adjusted HR 2.07, 95%CI 1.21-3.55, p=0.008), cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.05-4.39, p=0.035) and recurrence rates (adjusted HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.08-4.56, p=0.030), compared to those without, in multivariable analyses.
T2DM confers an increased risk of death in endometrial cancer patients. Well-designed longitudinal studies with large sample sizes are now needed to confirm these findings.