Pathogenic germ-line variants in GATA2 (GATA2 deficiency) can cause childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and can be associated with distinct clinical syndromic features. However, penetrance and genotype-phenotype correlations are incompletely understood. Here we report on the clinically diverse features of three siblings affected by GATA2c.1021_1031del over an 18-year period, all initially presenting in childhood and adolescence with MDS and AML with monosomy 7 (-7), and one also with monosomy trisomy 8 (+8).
The siblings inherited a GATA2c.1021_1031del from their father who remains asymptomatic in his sixth decade. The two younger sisters are well after unrelated haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), while the first boy died of severe chronic lung disease after sibling HSCT from his youngest sister, who subsequently also developed GATA2-deficiency associated MDS. This family illustrates high penetrance with variable genotype/phenotype correlation within one generation with GATA2-deficiency. We surmise that the lung disease post sibling HSCT was also
caused by the GATA2-deficiency. The experience with this family underlines the necessity for GATA2 analysis in all apparently sporadic childhood and teenage MDS and AML with -7 or +8 also in the absence of a family history or other clinical features, and rigorous genetic testing in siblings. Moreover, our findings support the arguments for pre-emptive HSCT in variant-carrying siblings.