The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is a part of stress response system, a neuroendocrine structure unique to fish. To gain a better understanding of the physiological roles of CNSS in fluid homeostasis, we characterized the tissue distribution of Urotensin I (UI) expression in European flounder (Platichthys flesus), analyzed the effect chronic exposure to seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW), transfer from SW to FW, and reverse transfer on mRNA levels of UI, L-type Ca2+ channels and Ca-activated K+ channels transcripts in CNSS. The tissue distribution demonstrated that the CNSS is dominant sites of UI expression, and UI mRNA level in fore brain appeared greater than other non-CNSS tissues. There were no consistent differences in CNSS UI expression or urophysis UI content between SW- and FW- adapted fish in July and September. After transfer from SW to FW, at 8 h CNSS UI expression was significantly increased, but urophysis UI content was no significantly changes. At 24 h transfer from SW to FW, expression of CNSS UI was no apparent change and urophsyis UI content was reduced. At 8 h and 24 h after transfer from FW to SW UI expression and urophysis UI content was no significantly effect. The expression of bursting dependent L-type Ca2+ channels and Ca-activated K+ channels in SW-adapted fish significantly decreased compared to those in FW-adapted. However, there were no differences in transfer from SW to FW or from FW to SW at 8 h and 24 h. Thus, these results suggest CNSS UI acts as a modulator in response to osmotic stress and plays important roles in the body fluid homeostasis.