Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defectsCitation formats

  • External authors:
  • Janet Jacobs
  • George Belev
  • Adam Brookfield
  • Safa Kasap

Standard

Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects. / Jacobs, Janet; Belev, George; Brookfield, Adam; Tuna, Floriana; Kasap, Safa; Curry, Richard.

In: Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics, Vol. 31, No. 18, 19.08.2020, p. 15489-15504.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Jacobs, J, Belev, G, Brookfield, A, Tuna, F, Kasap, S & Curry, R 2020, 'Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects', Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 15489-15504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-04111-1

APA

Jacobs, J., Belev, G., Brookfield, A., Tuna, F., Kasap, S., & Curry, R. (2020). Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics, 31(18), 15489-15504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-04111-1

Vancouver

Jacobs J, Belev G, Brookfield A, Tuna F, Kasap S, Curry R. Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics. 2020 Aug 19;31(18):15489-15504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-04111-1

Author

Jacobs, Janet ; Belev, George ; Brookfield, Adam ; Tuna, Floriana ; Kasap, Safa ; Curry, Richard. / Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects. In: Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics. 2020 ; Vol. 31, No. 18. pp. 15489-15504.

Bibtex

@article{8e55c524013f413f930e66062b321b89,
title = "Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects",
abstract = "Stabilised amorphous selenium (a-Se) is currently used in the majority of direct conversion mammographic X-ray imaging detectors due to its X-ray photoconductivity and its ability to be uniformly deposited over large area TFT substrates by conventional vacuum deposition. We report experimental results on photocurrent spectroscopy (frequency-resolved spectroscopy (FRS) and single-time transients), on vacuum-deposited a-Se films. We show that all measured photocurrents depend critically on the relative time spent by the material in the light and in the dark. We identify that the observed pronounced variation in optical response depends on the density of trapped (optically injected) charge within 200 nm of the surface and show that it is the ratio of dark and light exposure time that controls the density of such charge. Our data confirm that the localised charge radically influences the photocurrent transient shape due to the effective screening of the applied field within 200 nm of the surface. The field modification occurs over the optical extinction depth and changes both the photogeneration process and the drift of carriers. Many aspects of our data carry the signature of known properties of valence alternation pair (VAP) defects, which control many properties of a-Se. Modelling in the time domain shows that light generation of VAPs followed by optically triggered VAP defect conversion can lead to near-surface charge imbalance, demonstrating that VAP defects can account for the unusual optical response. The stabilised a-Se films were deposited above the glass transition temperature of the alloy with composition a-Se:0.3% As doped with ppm Cl. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at temperatures down to 5 K did not detect any spin active defects, even under photoexcitation above band gap.",
author = "Janet Jacobs and George Belev and Adam Brookfield and Floriana Tuna and Safa Kasap and Richard Curry",
note = "Funding Information: RC and SOK acknowledge the support of the Royal Society (London) International Exchange Award IE160035. SOK thanks the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada for the award of a Discovery Grant. We also acknowledge the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) for funding the EPSRC National EPR Facility and Service at Manchester (NS/A000055/1). Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2020, The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.",
year = "2020",
month = aug,
day = "19",
doi = "10.1007/s10854-020-04111-1",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "15489--15504",
journal = "Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics",
issn = "0957-4522",
publisher = "Springer Nature",
number = "18",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Frequency- and time-resolved photocurrents in vacuum-deposited stabilised a-Se films: the role of valence alternation defects

AU - Jacobs, Janet

AU - Belev, George

AU - Brookfield, Adam

AU - Tuna, Floriana

AU - Kasap, Safa

AU - Curry, Richard

N1 - Funding Information: RC and SOK acknowledge the support of the Royal Society (London) International Exchange Award IE160035. SOK thanks the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada for the award of a Discovery Grant. We also acknowledge the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) for funding the EPSRC National EPR Facility and Service at Manchester (NS/A000055/1). Publisher Copyright: © 2020, The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2020/8/19

Y1 - 2020/8/19

N2 - Stabilised amorphous selenium (a-Se) is currently used in the majority of direct conversion mammographic X-ray imaging detectors due to its X-ray photoconductivity and its ability to be uniformly deposited over large area TFT substrates by conventional vacuum deposition. We report experimental results on photocurrent spectroscopy (frequency-resolved spectroscopy (FRS) and single-time transients), on vacuum-deposited a-Se films. We show that all measured photocurrents depend critically on the relative time spent by the material in the light and in the dark. We identify that the observed pronounced variation in optical response depends on the density of trapped (optically injected) charge within 200 nm of the surface and show that it is the ratio of dark and light exposure time that controls the density of such charge. Our data confirm that the localised charge radically influences the photocurrent transient shape due to the effective screening of the applied field within 200 nm of the surface. The field modification occurs over the optical extinction depth and changes both the photogeneration process and the drift of carriers. Many aspects of our data carry the signature of known properties of valence alternation pair (VAP) defects, which control many properties of a-Se. Modelling in the time domain shows that light generation of VAPs followed by optically triggered VAP defect conversion can lead to near-surface charge imbalance, demonstrating that VAP defects can account for the unusual optical response. The stabilised a-Se films were deposited above the glass transition temperature of the alloy with composition a-Se:0.3% As doped with ppm Cl. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at temperatures down to 5 K did not detect any spin active defects, even under photoexcitation above band gap.

AB - Stabilised amorphous selenium (a-Se) is currently used in the majority of direct conversion mammographic X-ray imaging detectors due to its X-ray photoconductivity and its ability to be uniformly deposited over large area TFT substrates by conventional vacuum deposition. We report experimental results on photocurrent spectroscopy (frequency-resolved spectroscopy (FRS) and single-time transients), on vacuum-deposited a-Se films. We show that all measured photocurrents depend critically on the relative time spent by the material in the light and in the dark. We identify that the observed pronounced variation in optical response depends on the density of trapped (optically injected) charge within 200 nm of the surface and show that it is the ratio of dark and light exposure time that controls the density of such charge. Our data confirm that the localised charge radically influences the photocurrent transient shape due to the effective screening of the applied field within 200 nm of the surface. The field modification occurs over the optical extinction depth and changes both the photogeneration process and the drift of carriers. Many aspects of our data carry the signature of known properties of valence alternation pair (VAP) defects, which control many properties of a-Se. Modelling in the time domain shows that light generation of VAPs followed by optically triggered VAP defect conversion can lead to near-surface charge imbalance, demonstrating that VAP defects can account for the unusual optical response. The stabilised a-Se films were deposited above the glass transition temperature of the alloy with composition a-Se:0.3% As doped with ppm Cl. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at temperatures down to 5 K did not detect any spin active defects, even under photoexcitation above band gap.

U2 - 10.1007/s10854-020-04111-1

DO - 10.1007/s10854-020-04111-1

M3 - Article

VL - 31

SP - 15489

EP - 15504

JO - Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics

JF - Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics

SN - 0957-4522

IS - 18

ER -